The Original PropBank
The original PropBank project, funded by ACE, created a corpus of
text annotated with information about basic semantic
propositions. Predicate-argument relations were added to the syntactic
trees of the Penn Treebank. This resource is now available via
This project was continued under NSF funding and DARPA GALE and
BOLT. The most well-known of these modern resources are the pointers
released under The Ontonotes 5, which expanded to other
genres, such as broadcast news, webtext, and conversation, more recent
annotations with the funding of DARPA-BOLT, NIH and Google have annotated SMS conversations,
corpora of questions, the English Web Treebank, and even clinical notes. When licensing allows,
the PropBank annotations of these corpora will be released and maintained here. Propbank annotation is done at CLEAR
under the supervision of Martha Palmer
Propbank Frame development
PropBank has also been mapped to VerbNet and FrameNet as part of SemLink: Mapping
together PropBank/VerbNet/FrameNet, and one can browse a combined representation of those
three resources at the Unified Verb Index. PropBank's coverage has also
been extended to provide support for AMR annotation (which uses PropBank frame files), unifying Propbank rolesets across different parts of speech. This is being funded by DARPA under the DEFT project.
For more information regarding frames, consult the history of the frame releases, or
of the changes in the new 3.0 Propbank frames. A corresponding DTD file is included in each frame release.
The following are three of the core Propbank citations. For more papers, consult the bibliography
Paul Kingsbury and Martha Palmer.From Treebank to PropBank.
2002. In Proceedings of the 3rd International
Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2002), Las Palmas, Spain.
Martha Palmer, Dan Gildea, Paul Kingsbury, The Proposition Bank: A
Corpus Annotated with Semantic Roles Computational Linguistics Journal, 31:1, 2005.
of Parsing for Predicate Argument Recognition. Daniel Gildea and Martha
Palmer. 2002. In Proceedings of ACL 2002, Philadelphia, PA.
For citing the new unified frame files, use:
Claire Bonial, Julia Bonn, Kathryn Conger, Jena Hwang and Martha Palmer (2014) PropBank: Semantics of New Predicate Types. The 9th edition of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference. Reykjavik, Iceland.
Claire Bonial, Kathryn Conger, Jena D. Hwang, Aous Mansouri, Yahya Aseri, Julia Bonn, Timothy O’Gorman, & Martha Palmer, (in press), Current Directions in English and Arabic PropBank, In The Handbook of Linguistic Annotations. Ed. James Pustejovsky and Nancy Ide. Springer.
For the latest version 3.4 release:
Sameer Pradhan, Julia Bonn, Skatje Myers, Kathryn Conger, Tim O’gorman, James Gung, Kristin Wright-bettner, and Martha Palmer. 2022. PropBank Comes of Age—Larger, Smarter, and more Diverse. In Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics, pages 278–288, Seattle, Washington. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Propbanks in Other Languages
Use of the English Propbank on other languages:
IBM Univeral Proposition Banks
Propbank annotations with language-specific lexicons:
Arabic Propbank (Guidelines)